Streptococcus is another kind of common bacteria of suppurative coccus, which exists in nature and human and animal excrement and healthy human nasopharynx, most of which are not pathogenic. The important streptococcus in medicine mainly includes suppurative streptococcus, streptococcus aeruginosa, streptococcus pneumoniae and streptococcus galactica. Human diseases mainly include suppurative inflammation, toxic diseases and hypersensitive diseases.
According to the hemolytic characteristics on the blood AGAR medium, it can be divided into three different types:
A (α) hemolytic streptococcus
is also called cyanobacteria oxalensis, and oxalic hemolytic rings appear around the bacterial colonies. It usually resides in the human oropharynx cavity, respiratory tract and intestinal tract, and has weak pathogenicity.
B (β) hemolytic streptococcus
can produce strong hemolytic toxin, on blood AGAR medium and can make the colony around 2 ~ 4 mm wide, clear, colorless, transparent boundaries of hemolysis, pathogenic power, It also can cause A variety of diseases in humans, according to the antigen structure is different, and divided into A, B, C, D, such as group of 20, in every group, due to the difference of surface antigen, and divided into several subsets, the great majority of human pathogenic belongs to A group.
Streptococcus C (γ):
streptococci insoluble in blood has no pathogenic effects on humans. The diseases caused by streptococcus have complex and diverse characteristics. On the other hand, human tissues and organs are highly susceptible, and there are abnormal reaction mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis. The invasive enzymes produced by streptococcus include: hyaluronidase, streptokinase and streptozyme. The toxins produced include streptococcus hemolysin and erythematotoxin. Allergic diseases such as rheumatic fever and acute glomerulonephritis may be caused by group A streptococcus infection.
Prevention and treatment principles
The prevention and control principle of streptococcus infection is the same as that of staphylococcus. Streptococcus is transmitted through droplet basically, answer patient and carrier treat in time, in order to reduce the source of infection. Pay attention to disinfection of air, equipment and dressings. Patients with acute pharyngitis and tonsillitis, especially children, should be treated thoroughly to prevent the occurrence of hypersensitive and reactive diseases. All hemolytic streptococcus A are sensitive to sulfamide, penicillin and erythromycin. Other species of bacteria have different sensitivity to antibiotics, so it is better to conduct drug sensitivity tests in clinical application.
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